https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/issue/feedEuropean Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Editorial Office, EJPAMeditor@ejpam.comOpen Journal Systems<h3>Welcome</h3><p align="justify"><strong></strong></p><p align="justify"><em>European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics</em> is an international electronic journal which is devoted to original research in the field of pure and applied mathematics and their teaching and learning. The aim of the journal is to provide a medium by which a wide range of experience can be exchanged among researchers from diverse fields such as engineering, natural sciences or social sciences. This journal publishes high quality researches in the fields of contemporary pure and applied mathematics with a broad range of topics including algebra, topology, number theory, approximation theory, mathematical methods in operational research, theoretical statistics and econometrics, and theoretical computer science.</p><p align="justify">Another feature of the journal is to publish papers on mathematics education which contribute to the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning for students from upper secondary/high school level through to university first degree level. Although the journal focuses on the original research articles, it also welcomes reviews and short notes. All submitted papers are peer-reviewed.</p><p align="justify"><strong>Editorial Board</strong></p><p align="justify">The<strong> </strong>Editorial Board consists of prominent scientists as some are Nobel Laureates.</p><p align="justify">See<strong></strong> <a href="/index.php/ejpam/about/editorialTeam">editorial board</a> details.</p><p align="justify"><strong>Readership</strong></p><p>The journal is a rostrum for the audience of mathematicians, operational researchers, statisticians, econometricians, computer scientists, mathematics educators and all scientists using mathematics.</p><p><strong>Journal Impact </strong></p><p class="MsoNormal">Papers: 439, Citations: 2,132, <strong>Cites/paper (Impact Factor): 4.86</strong>. </p><p>The current EJPAM Journal impact is calculated using Harzing's Publish or Perish software that employs Google Scholar on 22.01.2018.</p><p><strong>Abstracted/Indexed in:</strong></p><p align="justify">Thomson Reuters (Clarivate Analytics) Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Web of Science, Mathematical Reviews, Zentralblatt MATH, EBSCO, Chambridge Scientific Abstracts, IndexCopernicus™, International Abstracts in Operations Research, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, <a title="Arastirmax Bilimsel Yayın İndeksi" href="http://www.arastirmax.com/dergi/european-journal-pure-and-applied-mathematics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arastirmax</a>, CrossRef</p> <p align="justify">ISSN:1307-5543 <br />Inaugural publication: January 2008 <br />The journal is quarterly</p><p align="justify"><strong>Publisher</strong></p><p align="justify">European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics is published by<strong> New York Business Global</strong>, USA.</p>https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3346On Some Series Dependent on a Parameter Which Generalize Euler’s Constant2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Paul Brackenpaul.bracken@utrgv.eduSeries which depend on a parameter and generalize the constant discovered by Euler are introduced and studied. Convergence results are established. An infinite series expansion is obtained from these generalized formulas which can be used to evaluate the generalized constant. Euler’s constant can be obtained as a special case. Some asymptotic results are formulated and limits of some closely related sequences are given at the end.2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3368The DG Poisson Adjoint Action and its Application2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Xiaojie Li407586291@qq.comXianguo Hu2015210420@zjnu.edu.cnJiafeng Lvjiafenglv@zjnu.edu.cnXingting Wangxingting.wang@howard.edu<div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>In this paper, the di</span><span>ff</span><span>erential graded (DG for short) Poisson adjoint action on </span><span>M </span><span>is introduced, where </span><span>M </span><span>is a DG Poisson module over a DG Poisson Hopf algebra </span><span>A</span><span>. As an application, we give a new DG poisson module structure over the DG Poisson Hopf algebra </span><span>A</span><span>, which depends heavily on the structure of </span><span>A</span><span>.</span></p></div></div></div>2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3350On Determining Initial Conditions of Equations Flexural-Torsional Vibrations of a Bar2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Aysel Ramazanovaramazanova-aysel@mail.ruThe problem of finding the initial conditions in the boundary-value problem for the system of flexural-torsional vibrations of a bar with additional conditions on the straight line is reduced to an optimal control problem and studied by the methods of optimal control theory. The gradient of the functional is calculated and using the gradient expression a necessary and sufficient optimality condition are proved.2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3377On a Computational Method for Non-integer Order Partial Differential Equations in Two Dimensions2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Muhammad Ikhlaq Chohanchohan@buc.edu.omKamal Shahkamalshah408@gmail.com<span class="fontstyle0">This manuscript is concerning to investigate numerical solutions for different classes<br />including parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations of arbitrary order(PDEs). The proposed technique depends on some operational matrices of fractional order differentiation and integration. To compute the mentioned operational matrices, we apply shifted Jacobi polynomials in two dimension. Thank to these matrices, we convert the (PDE) under consideration to an algebraic equation which is can be easily solved for unknown coefficient matrix required for the numerical solution. The proposed method is very efficient and need no discretization of the data for the proposed (PDE). The approximate solution obtain via this method is highly accurate and the computation is easy. The proposed method is supported by solving various examples from well known articles.</span> <br /><br />2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3342Backwards Ito-Henstock Integral for the Hilbert-Schmidt-Valued Stochastic Process2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Ricky Ruletericky_rulete@yahoo.com.phMhelmar Avila Labendiamhelmar.labendia@g.msuiit.edu.ph<p class="p1">In this paper, a definition of backwards Ito-Henstock integral for the Hilbert-Schmidt-valued stochastic process is introduced. We formulate the Ito isometry for this integral. Moreover, an equivalent definition for this integral is given using the concept of AC^<span class="s1">2</span> [0,T]-property, a version of absolute continuity.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:39+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3343N -soft p-ideals of BCI-algebras2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00G. Muhiuddinchishtygm@gmail.comShuaa Aldhafeerisaldhaferi@yahoo.com<p>In this paper, using the notion of soft sets and N-structures, the notion of N-soft p-ideals in BCI-algebras is introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between N-soft ideals and N-soft p-ideals are discussed. Conditions for an N-soft ideal to be an N-soft p-ideal are established.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3331Fixed Point Results in Metric-like Spaces via Sigma-simulation Functions.2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Habes Alsamirh.alsamer@gmail.comMohd Selmi Nooranimsn@ukm.myWasfi Shatanawiswasfi@hu.edu.joHassen Aydihmaydi@uod.edu.saHabibulla Akhadkulovhabibulla@uum.edu.myHaitham Qawaqnehhaitham.math77@yahoo.comKareem Alanazisunshine-w@hotmail.comThe purpose of this paper is to establish some fixed results for a class of contractive mappings in complete metric-like spaces. Our results generalize and extend several known results on literature. Two examples are also presented.2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3363A Version of Fundamental Theorem for the Ito-McShane Integral of an Operator-Valued Stochastic Process2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Jeffer Dave Cagubcobjdacagubcob@gmail.comMhelmar Avila Labendiamhelmar.labendia@g.msuiit.edu.ph<p class="p1">In this paper, we formulate a descriptive definition or a version of fundamental theorem for the Ito-McShane integral of an operator-valued stochastic process with respect to a Hilbert space-valued Wiener process. For this reason, we introduce the concept of belated Mcshane dierentiability and a version of absolute continuity of a Hilbert space-valued stochastic process.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3280Soft Hypervector Space and Fuzzy Soft Hypervector Space2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Esmail Ranjbar-Yanehsariasghari2004@yahoo.comMohsen Asghari-Larimiasghari2004@yahoo.comReza Ameriasghari2004@yahoo.com<p>In this paper, the notions of soft hypervector space and fuzzy soft hypervector space are introduced, and several basic properties are provided. Also, we define and analyze the concept of image and pre-image of fuzzy soft hypervector space.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3352Beta1-paracompactness with respect to an Ideal2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Abdo Mohammed Cahiscahis82@gmail.com<p>The notion of 1-paracompactness in topological spaces is introduced and studied in [1]. In this paper, we introduce and investigate the notion of \beta_1-paracompact spaces with respect to an ideal I which is a generalization of the notion of \beta_1-paracompact spaces. We study characterizations, subsets and subspaces of 1I-paracompact spaces. Also, we investigate the invariants of \beta_I-paracompact spaces by functions.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3362On a Graph Induced by a Hyper BCI-algebra2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Michelle Tandog Panganduyonmichelle.panganduyon@g.msuiit.edu.phSergio Jr. Rosales Canoysergio.canoy@g.msuiit.edu.phThis paper introduces the notion of the zero divisor graph of a hyper BCI-algebra and investigates some of its properties.2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3308Application of Combinatorial Techniques to the Ghanaian Board Game Zaminamina Draft2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Elvis Kobina Donkohelvis.donkor@uenr.edu.ghRebecca Daviselvis.donkor@uenr.edu.ghEmmanuel D.J Owusu-Ansahelvis.donkor@uenr.edu.ghEmmanuel A. Antwielvis.donkor@uenr.edu.ghMichael Mensahelvis.donkor@uenr.edu.ghGames happen to be a part of our contemporary culture and way of life. Often mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers are studied in these games. Example is the African board game ’Zaminamina draft’ which is often guided by combinatorial strategies and techniques for winning. In this paper we deduce an intelligent mathematical technique for playing a winning game. Two different starting strategies were formulated; center starting and edge or vertex starting. The results were distorted into a 3x3 matrix and elementary row operations were performed to establish all possible wins. MatLab was used to distort the matrix to determine the diagonal wins. A program was written using python in artificial intelligence (AI) to help in playing optimally2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3312Other Kinds of Soft β maps via Soft Topological Ordered Spaces2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Tareq AL-shamitareqalshami83@gmail.comMohammed El-ShafeiSafeimoh67@gmail.comBaravan Asaadbaravan.asaad@uoz.edu.krd<p>The authors of [13] formulated a soft topological ordered spaces concept and then they established and studied some ordered mappings [14]. In the present work, we define new ordered mappings via soft topological ordered spaces based on soft β-open sets, namely soft xβ-continuous, soft xβ-open, soft xβ-closed and soft xβ-homeomorphism mappings, for x ∈ {I, D, B}. We give various characterizations of each one of the introduced soft mappings. One of the most important obtained results is that an extended soft topologies notion guarantees the equivalent between the soft mappings initiated herein and their counterparts of mappings on topological ordered spaces. We provide several interesting examples to examine the relationships among these soft mappings.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3347Value-at-Risk Modeling with Conditional Copulas in Euclidean Space Framework2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Vini Yves Bernadin Loyaraloyarayves@outlook.comDiakarya Barrodbarro2@gmail.comThis paper aims to establish an analytic relation between a time-varying conditional copula and the value at risk modeled by the underlying. Specically, under the asumption that the space is euclidean we use scalar product to clarify a link between the conditional copula varying with time and norms. It is then established a new expression on the geometric yield2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3383An Application of le-semigroup Techniques to Semigroups, Γ-semigroups and to Hypersemigroups2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Niovi Kehayopulunkehayop@math.uoa.grAn $le$-semigroup, is a semigroup $S$ at the same time a lattice with a greatest element $e$ ($e\ge a$ for every $a\in S$) such that $a(b\vee c)=ab\vee ac$ and $(a\vee b)c=ac\vee bc$ for all $a,b,c\in S$. If $S$ is not a lattice but only an upper semilattice ($\vee$-semilattice), then is called $\vee e$-semigroup. A $poe$-semigroup is a semigroup $S$ at the same time an ordered set with a greatest element $e$ such that $a\le b$ implies $ac\le bc$ and $ca\le cb$ for all $c\in S$. Every $\vee e$-semigroup is a $poe$-semigroup. If $S$ is a semigroup or a $\Gamma$-semigroup, then the set ${\cal P}(S)$ of all subsets of $S$ is an $le$-semigroup. If $S$ is an hypersemigroup, then the set ${\cal P^*}(S)$ of all nonempty subsets of $S$ is an $le$-semigroup. So all the results of $le$-semigroups, $\vee e$-semigroups and $poe$-semigroups based on ideal elements, automatically hold for semigroups, $\Gamma$-semigroups and hypersemigroups. This is not the case for ordered $\Gamma$-semigroups or ordered hypersemigroups; however the main idea, even in these cases, comes from the $le$ ($\vee e$)-semigroups. As an example, we study the weakly prime ideal elements of a $\vee e$-semigroup and their role to the different type of semigroups mentioned above.2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3344Characterizations of Non-associative Rings by Their Intuitionistic Fuzzy Bi-ideals2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Nasreen Kausarkausar.nasreen57@gmail.comMuhammad Azam Waqarkausar.nasreen57@gmail.comThe purpose of this paper is to initiate and study on the generalization of the fuzzification of ideals in a class of non-associative and non-commutative algebraic structures (LA-ring). We characterize different classes of LA-ring in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy left (resp. right, bi-, generalized bi-, (1,2)-) ideals.<strong> </strong>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematicshttps://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3386Corrigendum The Generalized Artin Primitive Root Conjecture (EUROPEAN J. OF PURE AND APPLIED MATH. Vol. 11, No. 1, 2018, 23-34)2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00N. A. Carellapobox5050@live.com<p>The subset of integers $\mathcal{N}_2= \{ n\in \mathbb{N}:\text{ord}_n(2)=\lambda(n) \}$ in page 24, \cite{CN18}, should be \\ $$\label{eq2-40} \mathcal{N}_u =\left\{ n\in \mathbb{N}:\ord_n(u)=\lambda(n) \text{ and } p \mid n \Rightarrow \ord_p(u)=p-1, \ord_{p^2}(u)=p(p-1) \right\} $$ where $u \ne \pm 1, v^2$.</p><p>In addition, Lemma 3.4 was corrected. </p><p>These changes do not affect the main result. The proof of Theorem 1.1 remains the same. The new version of the paper is available at arXiv:1504.00843v9.</p>2019-01-31T18:18:40+00:00Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics