European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam
<h3>Welcome</h3><p align="justify"><strong></strong></p><p align="justify"><em>European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics</em> is an international electronic journal which is devoted to original research in the field of pure and applied mathematics and their teaching and learning. The aim of the journal is to provide a medium by which a wide range of experience can be exchanged among researchers from diverse fields such as engineering, natural sciences or social sciences. This journal publishes high quality researches in the fields of contemporary pure and applied mathematics with a broad range of topics including algebra, topology, number theory, approximation theory, mathematical methods in operational research, theoretical statistics and econometrics, and theoretical computer science.</p><p align="justify">Another feature of the journal is to publish papers on mathematics education which contribute to the improvement of mathematics teaching and learning for students from upper secondary/high school level through to university first degree level. Although the journal focuses on the original research articles, it also welcomes reviews and short notes. All submitted papers are peer-reviewed.</p><p align="justify"><strong>Editorial Board</strong></p><p align="justify">The<strong> </strong>Editorial Board consists of prominent scientists as some are Nobel Laureates.</p><p align="justify">See<strong></strong> <a href="/index.php/ejpam/about/editorialTeam">editorial board</a> details.</p><p align="justify"><strong>Readership</strong></p><p>The journal is a rostrum for the audience of mathematicians, operational researchers, statisticians, econometricians, computer scientists, mathematics educators and all scientists using mathematics.</p><p><strong>Journal Impact </strong></p><p class="MsoNormal">Papers: 439, Citations: 2,132, <strong>Cites/paper (Impact Factor): 4.86</strong>. </p><p>The current EJPAM Journal impact is calculated using Harzing's Publish or Perish software that employs Google Scholar on 22.01.2018.</p><p><strong>Abstracted/Indexed in:</strong></p><p align="justify">Thomson Reuters (Clarivate Analytics) Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Web of Science, Mathematical Reviews, Zentralblatt MATH, EBSCO, Chambridge Scientific Abstracts, IndexCopernicus™, International Abstracts in Operations Research, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, <a title="Arastirmax Bilimsel Yayın İndeksi" href="http://www.arastirmax.com/dergi/european-journal-pure-and-applied-mathematics" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Arastirmax</a>, CrossRef</p> <p align="justify">ISSN:1307-5543 <br />Inaugural publication: January 2008 <br />The journal is quarterly</p><p align="justify"><strong>Publisher</strong></p><p align="justify">European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics is published by<strong> New York Business Global</strong>, USA.</p>en-US<p align="justify">Upon acceptance of an article by the journal, the author(s) accept(s) the transfer of copyright of the article to <em>European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics. </em></p><p align="justify"><em>European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics will be Copyrihgt Holder.</em></p><p align="justify">If necessary, authors are responsible for obtaining permissions to reprint previously published figures, tables, and other material.</p>editor@ejpam.com (Editorial Office, EJPAM)bariskiremitci@gmail.com (Baris Kiremitci)Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000OJS 2.4.8.1http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss60On Some Series Dependent on a Parameter Which Generalize Euler’s Constant
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3346
Series which depend on a parameter and generalize the constant discovered by Euler are introduced and studied. Convergence results are established. An infinite series expansion is obtained from these generalized formulas which can be used to evaluate the generalized constant. Euler’s constant can be obtained as a special case. Some asymptotic results are formulated and limits of some closely related sequences are given at the end.Paul Bracken
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3346Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:39 +0000The DG Poisson Adjoint Action and its Application
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3368
<div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>In this paper, the di</span><span>ff</span><span>erential graded (DG for short) Poisson adjoint action on </span><span>M </span><span>is introduced, where </span><span>M </span><span>is a DG Poisson module over a DG Poisson Hopf algebra </span><span>A</span><span>. As an application, we give a new DG poisson module structure over the DG Poisson Hopf algebra </span><span>A</span><span>, which depends heavily on the structure of </span><span>A</span><span>.</span></p></div></div></div>Xiaojie Li, Xianguo Hu, Jiafeng Lv, Xingting Wang
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3368Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:39 +0000On Determining Initial Conditions of Equations Flexural-Torsional Vibrations of a Bar
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3350
The problem of finding the initial conditions in the boundary-value problem for the system of flexural-torsional vibrations of a bar with additional conditions on the straight line is reduced to an optimal control problem and studied by the methods of optimal control theory. The gradient of the functional is calculated and using the gradient expression a necessary and sufficient optimality condition are proved.Aysel Ramazanova
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3350Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:39 +0000On a Computational Method for Non-integer Order Partial Differential Equations in Two Dimensions
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3377
<span class="fontstyle0">This manuscript is concerning to investigate numerical solutions for different classes<br />including parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic partial differential equations of arbitrary order(PDEs). The proposed technique depends on some operational matrices of fractional order differentiation and integration. To compute the mentioned operational matrices, we apply shifted Jacobi polynomials in two dimension. Thank to these matrices, we convert the (PDE) under consideration to an algebraic equation which is can be easily solved for unknown coefficient matrix required for the numerical solution. The proposed method is very efficient and need no discretization of the data for the proposed (PDE). The approximate solution obtain via this method is highly accurate and the computation is easy. The proposed method is supported by solving various examples from well known articles.</span> <br /><br />Muhammad Ikhlaq Chohan, Kamal Shah
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3377Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:39 +0000Backwards Ito-Henstock Integral for the Hilbert-Schmidt-Valued Stochastic Process
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3342
<p class="p1">In this paper, a definition of backwards Ito-Henstock integral for the Hilbert-Schmidt-valued stochastic process is introduced. We formulate the Ito isometry for this integral. Moreover, an equivalent definition for this integral is given using the concept of AC^<span class="s1">2</span> [0,T]-property, a version of absolute continuity.</p>Ricky Rulete, Mhelmar Avila Labendia
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3342Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:39 +0000N -soft p-ideals of BCI-algebras
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3343
<p>In this paper, using the notion of soft sets and N-structures, the notion of N-soft p-ideals in BCI-algebras is introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between N-soft ideals and N-soft p-ideals are discussed. Conditions for an N-soft ideal to be an N-soft p-ideal are established.</p>G. Muhiuddin, Shuaa Aldhafeeri
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3343Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Fixed Point Results in Metric-like Spaces via Sigma-simulation Functions.
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3331
The purpose of this paper is to establish some fixed results for a class of contractive mappings in complete metric-like spaces. Our results generalize and extend several known results on literature. Two examples are also presented.Habes Alsamir, Mohd Selmi Noorani, Wasfi Shatanawi, Hassen Aydi, Habibulla Akhadkulov, Haitham Qawaqneh, Kareem Alanazi
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3331Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000A Version of Fundamental Theorem for the Ito-McShane Integral of an Operator-Valued Stochastic Process
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3363
<p class="p1">In this paper, we formulate a descriptive definition or a version of fundamental theorem for the Ito-McShane integral of an operator-valued stochastic process with respect to a Hilbert space-valued Wiener process. For this reason, we introduce the concept of belated Mcshane dierentiability and a version of absolute continuity of a Hilbert space-valued stochastic process.</p>Jeffer Dave Cagubcob, Mhelmar Avila Labendia
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3363Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Soft Hypervector Space and Fuzzy Soft Hypervector Space
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3280
<p>In this paper, the notions of soft hypervector space and fuzzy soft hypervector space are introduced, and several basic properties are provided. Also, we define and analyze the concept of image and pre-image of fuzzy soft hypervector space.</p>Esmail Ranjbar-Yanehsari, Mohsen Asghari-Larimi, Reza Ameri
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3280Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Beta1-paracompactness with respect to an Ideal
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3352
<p>The notion of 1-paracompactness in topological spaces is introduced and studied in [1]. In this paper, we introduce and investigate the notion of \beta_1-paracompact spaces with respect to an ideal I which is a generalization of the notion of \beta_1-paracompact spaces. We study characterizations, subsets and subspaces of 1I-paracompact spaces. Also, we investigate the invariants of \beta_I-paracompact spaces by functions.</p>Abdo Mohammed Cahis
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3352Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000On a Graph Induced by a Hyper BCI-algebra
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3362
This paper introduces the notion of the zero divisor graph of a hyper BCI-algebra and investigates some of its properties.Michelle Tandog Panganduyon, Sergio Jr. Rosales Canoy
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3362Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Application of Combinatorial Techniques to the Ghanaian Board Game Zaminamina Draft
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3308
Games happen to be a part of our contemporary culture and way of life. Often mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers are studied in these games. Example is the African board game ’Zaminamina draft’ which is often guided by combinatorial strategies and techniques for winning. In this paper we deduce an intelligent mathematical technique for playing a winning game. Two different starting strategies were formulated; center starting and edge or vertex starting. The results were distorted into a 3x3 matrix and elementary row operations were performed to establish all possible wins. MatLab was used to distort the matrix to determine the diagonal wins. A program was written using python in artificial intelligence (AI) to help in playing optimallyElvis Kobina Donkoh, Rebecca Davis, Emmanuel D.J Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel A. Antwi, Michael Mensah
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3308Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Other Kinds of Soft β maps via Soft Topological Ordered Spaces
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3312
<p>The authors of [13] formulated a soft topological ordered spaces concept and then they established and studied some ordered mappings [14]. In the present work, we define new ordered mappings via soft topological ordered spaces based on soft β-open sets, namely soft xβ-continuous, soft xβ-open, soft xβ-closed and soft xβ-homeomorphism mappings, for x ∈ {I, D, B}. We give various characterizations of each one of the introduced soft mappings. One of the most important obtained results is that an extended soft topologies notion guarantees the equivalent between the soft mappings initiated herein and their counterparts of mappings on topological ordered spaces. We provide several interesting examples to examine the relationships among these soft mappings.</p>Tareq AL-shami, Mohammed El-Shafei, Baravan Asaad
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3312Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Value-at-Risk Modeling with Conditional Copulas in Euclidean Space Framework
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3347
This paper aims to establish an analytic relation between a time-varying conditional copula and the value at risk modeled by the underlying. Specically, under the asumption that the space is euclidean we use scalar product to clarify a link between the conditional copula varying with time and norms. It is then established a new expression on the geometric yieldVini Yves Bernadin Loyara, Diakarya Barro
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3347Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000An Application of le-semigroup Techniques to Semigroups, Γ-semigroups and to Hypersemigroups
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3383
An $le$-semigroup, is a semigroup $S$ at the same time a lattice with a greatest element $e$ ($e\ge a$ for every $a\in S$) such that $a(b\vee c)=ab\vee ac$ and $(a\vee b)c=ac\vee bc$ for all $a,b,c\in S$. If $S$ is not a lattice but only an upper semilattice ($\vee$-semilattice), then is called $\vee e$-semigroup. A $poe$-semigroup is a semigroup $S$ at the same time an ordered set with a greatest element $e$ such that $a\le b$ implies $ac\le bc$ and $ca\le cb$ for all $c\in S$. Every $\vee e$-semigroup is a $poe$-semigroup. If $S$ is a semigroup or a $\Gamma$-semigroup, then the set ${\cal P}(S)$ of all subsets of $S$ is an $le$-semigroup. If $S$ is an hypersemigroup, then the set ${\cal P^*}(S)$ of all nonempty subsets of $S$ is an $le$-semigroup. So all the results of $le$-semigroups, $\vee e$-semigroups and $poe$-semigroups based on ideal elements, automatically hold for semigroups, $\Gamma$-semigroups and hypersemigroups. This is not the case for ordered $\Gamma$-semigroups or ordered hypersemigroups; however the main idea, even in these cases, comes from the $le$ ($\vee e$)-semigroups. As an example, we study the weakly prime ideal elements of a $\vee e$-semigroup and their role to the different type of semigroups mentioned above.Niovi Kehayopulu
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3383Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Characterizations of Non-associative Rings by Their Intuitionistic Fuzzy Bi-ideals
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3344
The purpose of this paper is to initiate and study on the generalization of the fuzzification of ideals in a class of non-associative and non-commutative algebraic structures (LA-ring). We characterize different classes of LA-ring in terms of intuitionistic fuzzy left (resp. right, bi-, generalized bi-, (1,2)-) ideals.<strong> </strong>Nasreen Kausar, Muhammad Azam Waqar
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3344Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000Corrigendum The Generalized Artin Primitive Root Conjecture (EUROPEAN J. OF PURE AND APPLIED MATH. Vol. 11, No. 1, 2018, 23-34)
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3386
<p>The subset of integers $\mathcal{N}_2= \{ n\in \mathbb{N}:\text{ord}_n(2)=\lambda(n) \}$ in page 24, \cite{CN18}, should be \\ $$\label{eq2-40} \mathcal{N}_u =\left\{ n\in \mathbb{N}:\ord_n(u)=\lambda(n) \text{ and } p \mid n \Rightarrow \ord_p(u)=p-1, \ord_{p^2}(u)=p(p-1) \right\} $$ where $u \ne \pm 1, v^2$.</p><p>In addition, Lemma 3.4 was corrected. </p><p>These changes do not affect the main result. The proof of Theorem 1.1 remains the same. The new version of the paper is available at arXiv:1504.00843v9.</p>N. A. Carella
Copyright (c) 2019 European Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
https://ejpam.com/index.php/ejpam/article/view/3386Thu, 31 Jan 2019 18:18:40 +0000